• Salus Journal
    Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024)

    Introduction to Salus Journal

    Welcome to Salus Journal Issue 12 No. 1. This current issue tackles global challenges and offers insightful perspectives including articles on terrorism financing, surveillance powers, police recruit training, and estimating criminal populations.

    Salus Journal is proud to maintain its interdisciplinary and international coverage. With contributors representing diverse global perspectives, from both the global South and North, the journal offers unique insights and methodologies. From national security to crime and control, emergency management, and justice studies, our exploration spans a broad spectrum, offering valuable perspectives on contemporary challenges and opportunities.

    The issue features four original research articles.

    Monsurat Isiaka and Usman A. Ojedokun address the dearth of empirical research on the purported link between terrorism financing and kidnapping in northern Nigeria. Investigating the involvement of Boko Haram members in kidnapping, interviews with 27 apprehended suspects reveal a strategic shift towards this tactic due to diminishing external support. The findings highlight the pressing need for comprehensive strategies to counter both the financing and recruitment methods of terrorist organizations in the region.

    Brendan Walker-Munro, Ruby Ioannou, and David Mount scrutinize Australia's use of intrusive computer surveillance powers, emphasizing the need for robust safeguards and the consideration of suspects' privacy. By exploring legislative frameworks enabling such actions, the authors highlight the potential infringement on the privacy of individuals not yet proven guilty. They propose moderate law reform options to address these identified shortcomings and urge agencies to exercise mindfulness in their use of these powers.

    Sean Leech, Brett Shipton, and Troy Whitford address the historical dominance of marksmanship-focused firearm training in global police/law enforcement organizations. Criticized for its inadequacy in preparing recruits for critical incidents, the authors present an ongoing doctoral study evaluating the effectiveness of a reality-based training program. Early results show promise in enhancing participants' threat responses and operational performance.

    Razik Ridzuan Mohd Tajuddin and Noriszura Ismail attend to the recent surge of interest among researchers in estimating the size of the criminal population through their bibliometric analysis. It aims to identify the trends of publications and the top relevant sources and key authors involved in estimating the size of the criminal population. The results from the bibliometric analysis revealed that the idea of estimating the size of the criminal population is still vibrant and eye-catching.

    In addition to original research articles, this issue features a book review by Samantha Jones. Samantha reviewed Gods, Guns, and Sedition by Bruce Hoffman and Jacob Ware. The book looks at the rise of far-right extremism in the US, tracing its history over 40 years and linking it to factors like political polarization, social tribalism, and the proliferation of guns and militias. Samantha’s insightful review appreciates the authors' policy recommendations and emphasizes the urgent need for action, echoing their concerns about the challenges of countering far-right extremism.

    This issue of Salus Journal explores pressing contemporary issues across different contexts. It explores the challenges of counterterrorism strategies in Nigeria, the implications of expanded surveillance powers in Australia, methods for improving the efficacy of police recruit training, complexities of estimating criminal populations, and the rise of far-right extremism in the United States. The articles contained within this Issue underscore the need for comprehensive approaches to address these multifaceted challenges and advocate for urgent policy changes to safeguard privacy, counter extremism, and improve security measures.

    Once again, we express our sincere appreciation to the authors whose invaluable contributions have made this issue a reality. Their commitment, expertise, and enthusiasm in advancing scholarly discourse are truly commendable, and we take great pride in featuring their work in Salus Journal.

    We also extend our gratitude to the exceptional peer reviewers who generously dedicated their time, expertise, and attention to detail. Their commitment to upholding the highest standards of academic rigor and impartiality has greatly enriched the quality of the journal, and we deeply appreciate their invaluable contributions.

    Last but not least, we thank our production editor Mark Filmer for making this issue of Salus Journal happen, and our technical guru Patrick McKenzie for keeping our systems running smoothly.

    The collaborative efforts in this issue push the boundaries of knowledge, aim to influence practice, and challenge our perspectives. Salus Journal is proud to foster a dynamic academic community committed to excellence, offering perspectives relevant to industry stakeholders. Thank you for reading, and we look forward to the next issue in October 2024.

    Joint Editors-in-Chief,

    Dr Jamie Ferrill & Dr Kristy Campion

  • Salus Journal
    Vol. 11 No. 2 (2023)

    Welcome to Salus Journal Issue 11 No. 2. This current issue is a compendium of cutting-edge research and insightful perspectives that exemplify the forefront of academic inquiry.

    The interdisciplinary nature of Salus Journal is reflected in the topics covered in this issue. Our contributors hail from around the globe, bringing unique perspectives and methodologies to bear on challenges and opportunities that span dimensions of national security, crime and control, emergency management, and justice studies.

    The issue features six original research articles.

    Garth den Heyer contributed an insightful article on the impacts that COVID-19 had on the capacity and capability of the police. The article explores the distinct impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on police forces in New Zealand and the United Kingdom, revealing that while the virus incapacitated a significant number of sworn staff in the UK, civilian staff were more affected in New Zealand, with divergent trends in reported crime between the two countries.

    Ayomide Augustine Ilori and Joseph Olusola Adeleye’s article finds that despite legal measures against kidnapping in Nigeria, including Ekiti State, incidents continue. Their study employs routine activity theory to reveal the non-organized nature of kidnappers, prompting recommendations like maintaining a low profile for high-profile individuals and enhancing security infrastructure. The study advocates for measures such as Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design and the establishment of a surveillance and response unit by the Nigerian Police Force to effectively address the ongoing issue.

    Chris Madsen’s provocative article examines the potential military response to a hypothetical police-led coup d'état in Canada, considering legal authorities, civilian control, and relative capabilities favouring the Canadian military. The study underscores the educational value of such contingency planning for teaching military professionals about national security challenges in domestic operations.

    Next Amber McKinley, Nikki Dohnt, and Michelle Lark examine how, for over two decades, Australian publications have neglected to address unreported homicides, referred to as the dark figure of homicide, which are cases not officially documented and thus hidden from investigators. This qualitative research argues that Australia's annual homicide numbers might be underestimated, revealing potential hidden victims within specific crime typologies, and introducing new categories for future research in contemporary Australia.

    Next, Lorei Clemens and Kristina Balaneskovic explore de-escalation in the realm of daily police operations, and how encountering conflicts necessitates the prioritization of de-escalation through communication, with force being a last resort. The article underscores the scarcity of empirical data on de-escalation options and training, emphasizing the importance of factors beyond awareness in ensuring effective de-escalation in police encounters.

    The final research article by Oludayo Tade and Oluwatosin Adeniyi examines the prevalence of fraud in Nigeria's cashless financial ecosystem, exploring its impact on financial inclusion and the mediating role of risk governance mechanisms. Through qualitative methods in southwestern Nigeria, the study reveals how fear of fraud, indirect experiences, and fraud governance influence adoption and behaviour within the Nigerian banking system.

    In addition to original research articles, this issue features a book review by Suz Rock. Suz reviewed Children, Care and Crime: Trauma and Transformation by Alison Gerard, Andrew McGrath, Emma Colvin, and Annette Gainsford. Her thought-provoking review offers reflections on the current state of the field and outlines promising avenues for future exploration.

    Whether exploring the frontiers of policing, grappling with issues in crime reporting and data, pushing the boundaries of military response, or delving into complex financial crime, the articles contained in this issue represent a collective effort to advance our understanding of the world.

    We extend our deepest gratitude to the authors who have contributed their time, expertise, and passion to make this issue possible. Their dedication to advancing knowledge is commendable, and we are honoured to showcase their work within Salus Journal.

    We also express our sincere appreciation to the fabulous peer reviewers who generously contributed their time, expertise, and diligence, upholding the highest standards of academic rigour and impartiality to enhance the quality of the journal.

    Last but not least, we thank our production editor Mark Filmer for making this issue of Salus Journal happen.

    We are also proud to announce that Salus Journal is now publishing all articles on an ongoing/early access basis. This means they will be available immediately upon acceptance (following copyediting and typesetting).

    In conclusion, the collaborative efforts embodied in this issue serve to advance the boundaries of knowledge, influence practice, and ultimately challenge and shape how we think about the world. Salus Journal is proud to foster a dynamic academic community committed to excellence. Thank you for reading and we look forward to the next issue in 2024.

    Joint Editors-in-Chief,

    Dr Jamie Ferrill & Dr Kristy Campion

  • Salus Journal
    Vol. 11 No. 1 (2023)

    Welcome to Salus Journal issue 11, number 1. This edition of Salus Journal has research which takes a closer look at issues affecting Australian safety and security.

    It features an original research article by Associate Professor Amber McKinley and Samantha Jones, titled “Unsolved serial homicides in Australia, 1965-2022”, which explores the victim and incident characteristics of unsolved serial homicide over a fifty-seven-year period.  This research sheds a new light on the decision-making processes of perpetrators to avoid detection.

    This edition also showcases the first Professional Insight by Sam Miletta, who has examined the use of fire as a weapon during on Australian case studies. In demonstrating the deliberate use of fire in incidences such as ambush, civil unrest, barricade, bushfires, and complex or coordinated acts of violence, Miletta provides recommendations for future practice by first responders.

    There are also two book reviews: Understanding Homicide by Fiona Brookman by Associate Professor Amber McKinley; and Motherhood after Incarceration by Melissa Thompson and Summer Newell was reviewed by Cheryl Botello.

    We would also like to take this opportunity to advise readers and authors of the re-design and re-launch of the Salus Journal website.

    The new website features:

    • An updated, streamlined, and more accessible interface
    • Integration with OJS/PKP software to make your manuscript submissions faster and easier. It also enables better manuscript management for editors and peer reviewers;
    • Portage of historic Salus Journal papers to the new platform, which will allow each paper to have a unique URL which can be used by authors to gain more insight into paper performance;

    Our commitment to Salus Journal’s policies and standards remains the same, and we have sought to further emphasise the double-blind peer review process on the new platform. The new website remains available under the original web address, found here.

    This work was generously funded by the Faculty of Business, Justice and Behavioural Studies at Charles Sturt University. We would like to thank the Faculty for their support. We would also like to thank Patrick McKenzie for his design innovation, technical expertise and management, and persistence implementing the Salus Journal re-design.

    And as always, we must thank the peer reviewers and production editor Mark Filmer for making this issue of Salus Journal happen.


    Joint Editors-in-Chief,

    Dr Kristy Campion & Dr Jamie Ferrill

  • Vol. 10 No. 2 (2022)

    Introduction to Salus Journal

    We are delighted to present Salus Journal vol 10, no 2. It has been a challenging year for researchers around the world, especially given the newfound opportunities and vulnerabilities in security, influenced in part by the pandemic context. This issue has important contributions which promote the safety, security, and wellbeing of people around the world, and advances knowledge for the public good. This issue contains studies ranging from retail crime in the COVID-19 pandemic by Donald Meyerhoff, a review of evidence-based policing by Garth den Heyer, an investigation of cyber-policing in Nigeria by Usman Adekunle Ojedokun and Samson Imoleayo Oshilaja, reflections on Freedom of Information by Mehzeb Chowdhury, opioid affects by Weiss et al, and a book review by Samantha Jones.

    While the scope and intent of Salus Journal remains the same, the journal has undergone several changes this year in association with the appointment of the new Joint Editors-in-Chief: Dr Kristy Campion and Dr Jamie Ferrill. Dr Kristy Campion is a terrorism and security studies scholar, with a research focus domestic and transnational threats to Australian security. Dr Jamie Ferrill is political sociologist, with a research focus on national and economic security threats such as money laundering.

    We are embarking on an ambitious renewal project of Salus Journal, with a new journal title page, website, and editorial board. We thank our departing editorial board members for their service over the years, and our continuing editorial members for their continued support of Salus Journal. We also welcome new editorial board members to contribute to our international community of research excellence:

    Professor Christian Leuprecht, Queens University
    Professor Debra Smith, Victoria University
    Associate Professor Kelly Sundberg, Mount Royal University
    Dr Benjamin Lee, University of St Andrews

    We look forward to working with you all in the coming years.

    After ten years of support for Salus Journal, we must advise that Kellie Smyth, the Production Editor, has retired from her position. Kellie played an important role in the creation of the journal and was an influential part of the production process. Her diligence and patience over the years has supported academic excellence, and scholars around the world, in a direct and meaningful way. We thank Kellie for her work and wish her all the best for the future. We welcome Mark Filmer as the new Production Editor of Salus Journal. Mark Filmer is the Research Editor at Charles Sturt University. He has extensive experience in print media and communications. He is an award-winning journalist, author of Three Steel Teeth: Wide Comb Shears and Woolshed Wars, and a professional member of the Institute of Professional Editors.

    Finally, this edition – like all editions – is only made possible through the tireless work of our community of peer reviewers. We thank our peer reviewers for their continued support and commitment to research excellence.

    Joint Editors-in-Chief,
    Dr Kristy Campion & Dr Jamie Ferrill


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